What is Child Neurology?
Child neurology, also called pediatric neurology, is the medical subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and care of children and families affected by disorders of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles.
Child neurologists may also see children with educational, behavioral and psychiatric disorders in consultation. Child neurologists train in pediatrics and neurology for a minimum of five years after graduating from medical school.
Many child neurologists undertake additional years of fellowship training in highly specialized areas.
The disorders diagnosed and treated by child neurologists include but not limited to, headaches, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, epilepsy and seizures, metabolic disorders (inborn errors of metabolism), movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, ADHD, cognitive problems, sleep problems, neurodegenerative disorders, genetic disorders, medical aspects of head injuries and brain tumors, and autism.
What is an EEG and how do I prepare for it?
What is a video EEG?
What is an MRI?
What is Cranial CT scan?
What is Vagal Nerve Stimulator?
What is Ketogenic Diet?
What are Nerve Conduction Study and EMG?
Electromyography and nerve conduction studies help doctors determine whether muscle weakness, sensory loss, or both results from injury to the following:
In electromyography (EMG), small needles are inserted into a muscle to record the electrical activity of the muscle when the muscle is at rest and when it is contracting.
Normally, resting muscle produces no electrical activity. A slight contraction produces some electrical activity, which increases as the contraction increases.
The EMG is abnormal if muscle weakness results from a problem with a spinal nerve root, peripheral nerve, muscle, or neuromuscular junction.
The EMG produces a distinctive pattern of abnormalities. Unlike CT or EEG, which can be done routinely by technicians, EMG requires the expertise of a neurologist, who chooses the appropriate nerves and muscles to test and interprets the findings.
Nerve conduction studies measure the speed at which motor or sensory nerves conduct impulses. A small electrical current stimulates an impulse along the nerve being tested.
The current may be delivered by several electrodes placed on the surface of the skin or by several needles inserted along the pathway of the nerve.
The impulse moves along the nerve, eventually reaching the muscle and causing it to contract.
By measuring the time the impulse takes to reach the muscle and the distance from the stimulating electrode or needle to the muscle, doctors can calculate the speed of nerve conduction. The nerve may be stimulated once or several times (to determine how well the neuromuscular junction is functioning).
Results are abnormal only if the symptom results from a problem with a nerve or neuromuscular junction. For example,